Calculation of the graphene C 1<i>s</i> core level binding energy

Physical Review B 91, 081401(R) (2015)

Calculation of the graphene C 1s core level binding energy

Toma Susi, Duncan J. Mowbray, Mathias P. Ljungberg, Paola Ayala

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with first principles modeling is a powerful tool for determining the chemical composition and electronic structure of novel materials. Of these, graphene is an especially important model system for understanding the properties of other carbon nanomaterials. Here, we calculate the carbon 1s core level binding energy of pristine graphene using two methods based on density functional theory total energy differences: a calculation with an explicit core-hole (ΔKS), and a novel all-electron extension of the delta self-consistent field (ΔSCF) method. We study systematically their convergence and computational workload, and the dependence of the energies on the chosen exchange-correlation functional. The ΔSCF method is computationally more expensive, but gives consistently higher C 1s energies. Although there is a significant functional dependence, the binding energy calculated using the PBE functional is found to be remarkably close to what has been measured for graphite.

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