Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

Journal Of Physics D-Applied Physics 50, 053004 (11pp) (2017)

Emergent elemental two-dimensional materials beyond graphene

Yuanbo Zhang,Angel Rubio, Guy Le Lay

Two-dimensional (2D) materials may offer the ultimate scaling beyond the 5 nm gate length. The difficulty of reliably opening a band gap in graphene has led to the search for alternative, semiconducting 2D materials. Emerging classes of elemental 2D materials stand out for their compatibility with existing technologies and/or for their diverse, tunable electronic structures. Among this group, black phosphorene has recently shown superior semiconductor performances. Silicene and germanene feature Dirac-type band dispersions, much like graphene. Calculations show that most group IV and group V elements have one or more stable 2D allotropes, with properties potentially suitable for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Here, we review the advances in these fascinating elemental 2D materials and discuss progress and challenges in their applications in future opto- and nano-electronic devices.

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We acknowledge helpful discussions with S. Cahangirov, L. Xian and Likai Li. Y.Z. acknowledges support from NSF of China (grant nos. 11425415 and 11421404) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program; grant no. 2013CB921902). AR acknowledges support from the European Research Council (ERC-2010-AdG-267374, DYNamo), Spanish Grant (FIS2013-46159-C3-1-P), Grupos Consolidados UPV/EHU del Gobierno Vasco (IT578-13), and AFOSR Grant No. FA2386-15-1-0006 AOARD 144088, H2020-NMP-2014.

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